Dental caries is considered to be the most widespread infectious disease in a human. There are few people who have never encountered it and sat on a dental chair because of it. Caries itself is the last stage of a complex and long-lasting process that arises from the interaction of many factors, among which the most important are oral hygiene, nutrition and time.
The amount of dental plaque or the available nutrients for bacteria also determines whether the caries will progress faster or slower. In the earliest stages, caries looks like a chalky white blurred stain resulting from the loss of minerals from the enamel. When it passes through the entire thickness of the enamel and reaches the dentin, the progression of caries is accelerated because the dentin is less mineralized than the enamel and less resistant to the action of acid. Sometimes caries can be extensive and developed inside the hard dental tissues, and rhe cavity on the surface being small and invisible to the eye.
Caries below the contact points of adjacent teeth is especially difficult to detect, which is often detected only at an advanced stage. X-rays are especially useful for the diagnosis of caries in these places. It is important to say that the initial caries that is limited to enamel does not hurt. Symptoms appear only when caries penetrates the dentin, ie when the damage to the teeth is already relatively large. The pain occurs on hot, cold and sweet. This pain is short-lived and lasts only for the duration of the stimulus, and it occurs because bacterial toxins involve the pulp (dental nerve) that is located inside each tooth. If the penetration of bacteria into the pulp leads to its permanent damage, the pain becomes much more intense, occurs spontaneously, regardless of any stimulus, and often requires urgent dental intervention.